Students will use an interview with a Native American to write a newspaper article or letter that expresses concern about robbing archaeological sites.
Context: the relationship artifacts have to one another and the situation in which they are found.
Projectile point: a pointed implement (usually made from chipped stone) that was attached to the end of a spear or an arrow. This is a general term that includes both spear points and arrowheads.
Stratify: to form or place in layers.
Vandalism: willful or malicious defacing or destruction of public or private property.
The desire to own and/or sell ancient Indian artifacts has been popular for many years. In search of artifacts, people dig, backhoe, and bulldoze their way through sites occupied hundreds and thousands of years ago by ancient peoples. Since Native Americans in North Carolina often buried their dead with offerings, looters dig their way into grave sites in search of jewelry, pottery, and other objects. The skeletons are removed haphazardly from their resting place and are sometimes found scattered around the site. Graves are not the only parts of archaeological sites that looters destroy. They also dig into the ground around house sites and trash pits in order to find projectile points and other stone tools.
Whenever looters dig on a site, they are destroying archaeological data that help archaeologists learn about what life was like for Native North Americans. Archaeologists rely on finding archaeological artifacts in the place they were originally discarded, or in context, to help them draw conclusions about the people who lived at the site. Ancient human remains, if they are to be disturbed at all, must be treated with respect and carefully recorded in the location where they were originally buried so that information will not be lost. Physical anthropologists study human remains and help archaeologists understand prehistoric nutrition, ages, injuries, diseases, and genetic relationships. Irreplaceable scientific information is lost forever when ancient sites are looted. Equally important, vandalism of graves offends the living descendants of ancient people.
Vandalism and theft at ancient sites shows a lack of respect for past peoples. All cultures have beliefs about theft and the proper treatment of the dead and feel very shocked and upset when the graves and former homes of their ancestors are disturbed. When excavating sites where Indian peoples are buried, archaeologists work closely with modern Native American groups. Archaeologists will avoid excavating the graves of Native Americans if the modern ancestors do not want the human remains disturbed. If the graves are threatened by the construction of a road or reservoir, archaeologists will work with Native Americans to insure that the human remains are treated respectfully during their excavation, removal, and reburial.
Setting the stage
Discuss the purpose of Memorial Day and the tradition of grave decorating. Explore various reasons for this custom.
- Share background information with students.
- Have students read “A Point of View.”
- Have students imagine they are newspaper reporters. Tell them they just learned that the site where Mr. Jeffries believes his ancestors lived was vandalized by people in search of artifacts to collect and sell. As reporters, their assignment is to write an article about the vandalism. They should use “A Point of View” and “Fact Sheet” as resources for facts and insights. Tell students that in organizing information for their article, they should answer the five key journalistic questions: What happened? When? Where? Who was involved? Why (did it happen; matter; etc.)? Their articles should include observations about the impact the loss of information has on understanding the ancient villagers’ lives, along with the thoughts and feelings about the incident expressed by the archaeologist and, especially, Mr. Jeffries.
Ask students to think about some special object that is in their home that a family member values for sentimental reasons. Perhaps it is an antique dresser that belonged to their mother’s grandmother. Perhaps it is the baseball cap an older brother wore when his team won a regional championship. How would they and their family feel if someone vandalized or stole such an item? Why are these things important to people?
Students turn in their articles for evaluation.
The piece entitled “Police Track Down Looters” is adapted from several newspaper articles describing an actual case of looting at the Hardaway Site in western North Carolina. Read the excerpt to students and ask the following questions:
- What evidence did the detectives collect?
- Do you feel there was enough evidence to convict the couple of looting on a protected site? Why or why not?
- Do you feel that people digging unlawfully on Indian sites are disrespectful of Native American people? Why or why not?
North Carolina curriculum alignment
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS (2004)
- Goal 2: The learner will apply strategies and skills to comprehend text that is read, heard, and viewed.
- Objective 2.05: Make inferences, draw conclusions, make generalizations, and support by referencing the text.
- Objective 2.06: Summarize major points from fiction and nonfiction text(s) to clarify and retain information and ideas.
- Goal 4: The learner will apply strategies and skills to create oral, written, and visual texts.
- Objective 4.02: Use oral and written language to:
- present information and ideas in a clear, concise manner.
- solve problems.
- make decisions.
- Objective 4.09: Produce work that follows the conventions of particular genres (e.g., personal and imaginative narrative, research reports, learning logs, letters of request, letters of complaint).
- Objective 4.02: Use oral and written language to:
SOCIAL STUDIES (2003)
- Goal 2: The learner will examine the importance of the role of ethnic groups and examine the multiple roles they have played in the development of North Carolina.
- Objective 2.03: Describe the similarities and differences among people of North Carolina, past and present.
- Goal 4: The learner will analyze social and political institutions in North Carolina such as government, education, religion, and family and how they structure society, influence behavior, and respond to human needs.
- Objective 4.02: Identify religious groups that have influenced life in North Carolina and assess the impact of their beliefs.
North Carolina Essential Standards
SOCIAL STUDIES (2010)
- 4.C.1 Understand the impact of various cultural groups on North Carolina. 4.C.1.1 Explain how the settlement of people from various cultures affected the development of regions in North Carolina (languages, foods and traditions). 4.C.1.2 Explain how the artistic…