Bones represent a class of artifacts that are often missing at sites because they only preserve in the soil under particular conditions. This means that at many sites we not only lack direct information about what people consumed, but we also lack evidence of the many different types of tools and ornaments people created. The bone objects represented below provide a small glimpse into this often hidden world.
An antler flaker (or billet) would have been used as a soft hammer for stone tool production – it would have allowed stone tool makers more precision as they removed smaller flakes and entered the finishing stages of stone tool production. The awl and needle would have been used in sewing; an awl (or perforator) was used to punch holes in skins or leather, while a bone needle would have used in the same way metal needles are used today. A bone beamer is a tool used in the hide tanning process; a hide was laid over a pole and with one end in each hand, the beamer was scraped over the hide in either a pushing or pulling motion. The turtle-shell cups may have been ritual in nature; as part of their preparation, the vertebrae in the center were usually ground down, sometimes along with the edges of the shell.
For more information on the models, click on the artifact title in the upper left corner of the model window. You can also click on the collection name beneath the model window to view the full collection on Sketchfab.