Civil War (1861–1865)
The parameters of the Civil War years are fairly self-explanatory; they cover the actual years the Civil War was fought. This conflict holds a particular place of importance in North Carolina history, though. Despite being one of the last two states to adopt a secession ordinance, North Carolina ended up sending the most men and suffering the most casualties of any Confederate State. As with other conflicts and other Confederate States, the war split people into opposing factions. While the state is known for being confederate, someone like Howell G. Trogden was a private in the Eighth Missouri (US) Infantry, becoming the first North Carolinian to receive a Congressional Medal of Honor for his gallantry during the Vicksburg, Miss. campaign. American Indians were also split; many Cherokee supported the Confederacy, while the Lumbee were forced to work on Confederate fortifications and often fled to form groups that resisted impressment by the Confederate Army. The era of the Civil War naturally ends in 1865, with the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox, the assassination of President Lincoln, the surrender of General Johnston at Bennett’s Farm near Durham, the North Carolina Convention’s vote to repeal the Ordinance of Secession, and the General Assembly’s ratification of the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, officially abolishing slavery.